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Table 1 Trauma subtypes assessed by the CTQ (Bernstein et al. 1994)

From: The role of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders

Trauma subtype Definition
Emotional neglect Failure of caretakers to meet children’s basic emotional and psychological needs, including love, belonging, nurturance, and support
Emotional abuse Verbal assaults on a child’s sense of worth or well-being or any humiliating or demeaning behavior directed toward a child by an adult or older person
Physical neglect Failure of caretakers to provide for a child’s basic physical needs, including food, shelter, clothing, safety, and health care
Physical abuse Bodily assaults on a child by an adult or older person that posed a risk of- or resulted in injury
Sexual abuse Sexual contact or conduct between a child younger than 18 years of age and an adult or older person