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Table 1 Demographic and clinical variables of MPP, DPP, and IPP, and HC subjects

From: Cognitive impairments and predominant polarity in bipolar disorder: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics MPP
(n = 17)
DPP
(n = 22)
IPP
(n = 16)
HC
(n = 31)
p value
Age (years)* 37.94 (10.30) 36.68 (10.11) 39.63 (13.80) 35.35 (6.96) 0.550
Gender (% male)* 47.0 45.4 31.2 32.2 0.606
Age of onset (years)* 23.83 (9.66) 25.00 (5.83) 21.66 (10.78) 0.690
Years of schooling* 12.47 (2.57) 12.82 (1.87) 12.63 (1.96) 11.74 (1.98) 0.260
Estimated IQ* 93.35 (8.80) 101.95 (10.25) 99.00 (12.36) 97.23 (9.50) 0.073
Time since onset of illness* 10.50 (8.73) 10.27 (5.96) 11.00 (8.02) 0.977
Number of manic episodes* 5.06 (5.14) 2.56 (2.45) 4.00 (2.93) <0.001
Number of depressive episodes* 2.07 (1.43) 8.21 (6.62) 4.75 (4.06) <0.001
Number of episodes* 7.82 (6.23) 16.59 (10.09) 6.75 (3.99) <0.001
Psychotic symptoms** 11 (64.7) 8 (44.4) 3 (37.5) 0 (0) 0.338
Substance dependence** 4 (23.5) 7 (31.8) 2 (12.5) 0 (0) 0.384
Anxiety disorders** 9 (52.9) 11 (50) 6 (37.5) 0 (0) 0.986
Social phobia** 1 (5.8) 3 (13.6) 3 (18.7) 0 (0) 0.534
Specific phobia** 2 (11.7) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.098
Obsessive–compulsive disorder** 2 (11.7) 3 (13.6) 2 (12.5) 0 (0) 0.984
Post-traumatic stress disorder** 1 (5.8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.438
  1. MPP mania predominant polarity; DPP depressive predominant polarity; IPP indefinite predominant polarity; Control healthy subjects
  2. The significance for the italic values are for p < 0.05
  3. * Results expressed as mean (SD)—one-way ANOVA
  4. ** Results expressed as frequency (%)—Chi-squared test