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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline by age at first lithium prescription

From: An observational study of 110 elderly lithium-treated patients followed up for 6 years with particular reference to renal function

  Patients who started lithium at age <65 (n = 79) Patients who started lithium at age ≥65 (n = 31) P
Female/male (% females) 59/20 (75%) 21/10 (68%) 0.48
Age, median (min–max) 70 (65–84) 77 (65–83) 0.00006
Years on lithium, median (min–max) 18 (0–34) 7 (0–16) 2 × 10−15
Referred by neurologist 4 (5%) 14 (41%) 0.0001
Lithium carbonate daily dose, median mg (min–max) 450 (150–1050) 450 (150–750) 0.48
DSM-5 diagnosis
 Bipolar I disorder 36 (46%) 7 (23%) 0.03
 Bipolar II disorder 22 (28%) 12 (39%) 0.36
 Major depressive disorder, recurrent 18 (23%) 2 (6%) 0.06
 Bipolar disorder NED (not elsewhere defined) 3 (4%) 10 (32%) 0.0001
Current psychotropic medication
 Anticonvulsants 15 (19%) 1 (3%) 0.04
 Antipsychotics 33 (42%) 6 (19%) 0.03
 Antidepressants 18 (23%) 4 (13%) 0.30
 Benzodiazepines 55 (70%) 25 (81%) 0.34
Prior long-term antidepressants 1 (1%) 8 (26%) 0.0001
Availability of brain imaging (CAT or NMR scans) 12 (15%) 10 (32%) 0.06
Antiplatelet drugs or oral anticoagulants 14 (18%) 13 (42%) 0.01
ACE inhibitors, sartans, and/or thiazides 40 (51%) 17 (55%) 0.83