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Table 5 Measures associated with vs. without low eGFR among 2669 assays in 312 bipolar disorder subjects treated long-term with lithium

From: Long-term lithium treatment in bipolar disorder: effects on glomerular filtration rate and other metabolic parameters

Measure Low eGFRa Normal eGFR p-value [χ 2 or t-score]
Age at assay 62.7 [61.4–64.0] 48.0 [47.5–48.5] <0.0001 [18.3]
Medical comorbidity (%)b 83.5 59.5 <0.0001 [41.3]
Lithium exposure
 Years treated 19.6 [18.5–20.7] 11.2 [10.9–11.5] <0.0001 [16.3]
 Mean dose 588 [554–622] 884 [871–896] <0.0001 [15.5]
 Mean serum [Li+] 0.65 [0.63–0.68] 0.66 [0.65–0.67] 0.32 [0.99]
Physiological measures
 BUN 36.7 [34.3–39.1] 24.6 [24.0–25.2] <0.0001 [12.6]
 [Glucose] 108 [103–112] 95.8 [94.4–97.2] <0.0001 [5.88]
 BMI 28.5 [26.2–30.8] 26.4 [25.9–26.9] 0.03 [2.22]
  1. Means are with 95% CI. Serum lithium concentration is in mEq/L; dose is of lithium carbonate is total mg/day. Additional factors not associated with low eGFR: (1) diagnosis (bipolar I vs. bipolar II), (2) education, (3) metabolic syndrome (overall risk = 30.4%), (4) any substance abuse, (5) alcohol abuse, (6) smoking, (7) any suicidal act, (8) serum TSH. Medical illnesses include cardiovascular and metabolic syndromes
  2. aLow eGFR: subjects with at least one value <60 mL/min/1.73 m2; the observed rate of such subjects was 92/312 (29.5%), but 312/2669 assays (11.3%)
  3. bMost frequent medical comorbidities are: cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hypothyroidism, and respiratory diseases