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Table 1 Demographic and clinical variables in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), their unaffected first-degree relatives (UR) and healthy individuals (HC)

From: Metabolic profile in patients with newly diagnosed bipolar disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives

  BD UR HC
N 206 50 109
Metabolic syndrome 31 (15) 3 (6) 6 (5.5)
Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) 2.06 [1.44–3.25] 2.10 [1.59–2.63] 1.73 [1.35–2.42]
Age (years) 29.5 [24–37] 26.5 [22–31.3] 28 [24–36.5]
Sex (% female) 126 (61.2) 25 (50) 66 (60.6)
Education (years total) 15 [12.5–16] 15 [13–17] 15.5 [14.5–17]
Number of smokers (%) 95 (46.1) 13 (27.1) 10 (9.3)
Alcohol, units per week 2 [0–7] 2 [1–8] 5 [2–7]
Exercise (IPAQ, MET-minutes per week) 1680 [698–3051] 2373 [754–5270] 2040 [1160–4320]
Sleep disturbance (PSQI total score) 9 [6–13] 5.5 [3.8–8.3] 4 [2–6]
HDRS-17 9 [5–15] 2 [0–4] 1 [0–2]
YMRS 2 [0–6] 0 [0–2] 1 [0–2]
BD I 75 (34.4)
BD II 127 (61.7)
Single manic episode 4 (1.9)
Age of onset 17 [14–21]
Illness duration (years) 10 [6–16]
Untreated bipolar disorder (years)a 5 [1–11]
Manic episodes 0 [0–1]
Hypomanic episodes 4 [2–15]
Depressive episodes 6 [3–15]
Mixed episodes 0 [0–0]
Total affective episodes 12.5 [6–30]
Hospitalizations 0 [0–1]
Current affective episode
Remission 124 (60.2)
Mild/moderate depressive episode 42 (20.4)
Severe depressive episode 6 (2.9)
Mixed episode 10 (4.9)
Hypomanic episode 17 (8.3)
Manic episode 2 (1)
N.A. 2 (1)
Medication
No psychotropic medication 29 (14.1)
Lithium treatment 74 (35.9)
Antiepileptic treatment 108 (52.4)
Antidepressant treatment 55 (26.7)
Antipsychotic treatment 67 (32.5)
Psychotropic medication with metabolic adverse effects 127 (61.7)
  1. Continuous variables are presented as median [interquartile range]. Categorical variables are presented as n (%). HOMA-IR the Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, IPAQ International Physical Activity Questionnaire, MET-minutes metabolic equivalent minutes, PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, HAMD-17 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, YMRS Young Mania Rating Scale, BD I and BD II Bipolar Disorder type I and II, respectively, N.A. not available
  2. aUntreated bipolar disorder was defined as time from first manic, hypomanic or mixed episode to time of diagnosing bipolar disorder