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Table 2 Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and their unaffected first-degree relatives (UR) compared with healthy individuals (HC)

From: Metabolic profile in patients with newly diagnosed bipolar disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives

Model B 95% CI P value
1 Metabolic syndrome    
a BD vs. HC 3.041 1.227–7.535 0.016
UR vs. HC 1.096 0.263–4.570 0.9
b Male vs. female sex 1.954 1.142–2.168 0.059
Age 1.574 1.142–2.168 0.056
BD vs. HC 3.529 1.378–9.041 0.009
UR vs. HC 1.472 0.334–6.497 0.6
c Male vs. female sex 2.117 0.998–4.494 0.051
Age 1.580 1.137–2.197 0.006
BD vs. HC 1.918 0.669–5.498 0.2
UR vs. HC 1.108 0.027–0.432 0.9
No smoking 0.332 0.151–0.730 0.006
High vs. low alcohol intake 1.107 0.369–3.318 0.9
Moderate vs. low alcohol intake 0.739 0.317–1.727 0.5
2 Insulin resistance    
a BD vs. HC 1.203 1.058–1.367 0.005
UR vs. HC 1.092 0.0910–1.311 0.3
b Male vs. female sex 1.095 0.977–1.238 0.1
Age 0.996 0.989–1.002 0.2
BD vs. HC 1.203 1.059–1.367 0.005
UR vs. HC 1.069 0.889–1.287 0.5
c Male vs. female sex 1.129 1.001–1.273 0.048
Age 0.995 0.982–1.002 0.2
BD vs. HC 1.129 0.982–1.234 0.1
UR vs. HC 1.019 0.842–1.234 0.8
Smoking 1.113 0.974–1.271 0.1
High vs. low alcohol intake 0.857 0.704–1.044 0.1
Moderate vs. low alcohol intake 0.905 0.796–1.029 0.1
  1. Model 1: Generalized linear mixed model with metabolic syndrome as the dependent variable. B represents odds ratios
  2. Model 2: Linear mixed model with insulin resistance as the dependent variable. B represents back transformed beta values