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Table 2 Risk of cardiovascular diseases in bipolar disorder patients vs. general population.

From: Bipolar depression: a major unsolved challenge

OutcomeStudiesSubjectsHR [95% CI]p-value
Congestive heart failure113972.27 [1.49–3.45]< 0.0001
Cardiovascular mortality3179,6511.65 [1.10–2.47]0.02
Cerebrovascular disease46,673,2661.60 [0.99–2.57]0.05
Any cardiovascular disease107,058,9121.57 [1.28–1.93]< 0.0001
Coronary artery disease46,808,8121.16 [0.76–1.78]0.49
  1. Based on longitudinal studies with 8.4 [range: 1.8–30) years of follow-up. Hazard ratio (HR) is adjusted for six potential confounders; ranked by HR