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Table 2 Risk of cardiovascular diseases in bipolar disorder patients vs. general population.

From: Bipolar depression: a major unsolved challenge

Outcome Studies Subjects HR [95% CI] p-value
Congestive heart failure 1 1397 2.27 [1.49–3.45] < 0.0001
Cardiovascular mortality 3 179,651 1.65 [1.10–2.47] 0.02
Cerebrovascular disease 4 6,673,266 1.60 [0.99–2.57] 0.05
Any cardiovascular disease 10 7,058,912 1.57 [1.28–1.93] < 0.0001
Coronary artery disease 4 6,808,812 1.16 [0.76–1.78] 0.49
  1. Based on longitudinal studies with 8.4 [range: 1.8–30) years of follow-up. Hazard ratio (HR) is adjusted for six potential confounders; ranked by HR