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Table 4 Symptom and behavioral outcome measures for patients and caregivers participating in a 12-session psychoeducation group program for bipolar disorder

From: A multi-center naturalistic study of a newly designed 12-sessions group psychoeducation program for patients with bipolar disorder and their caregivers

Patients
  T0 T1 Paired t-test
QIDS - SR n = 81 8.60 (6.14) n = 81 7.40 (5.91) t = 2.26; p = 0.03
ASRM n = 82 1.82 (2.60) n = 82 1.73(2.07) ns
PAM-13 total n = 67 53.59 (11.9) n = 67 56.93 (14.1) t = − 2.21; p = 0.03
 PAM level 1 n = 88 32 (36%) n = 83 18 (22%)  
 PAM level 2   24 (27%)   17 (20%)  
 PAM level 3   18 (21%)   24 (29%)  
 PAM level 4   14 (16%)   24 (29%)  
LEE Total n = 73 69.56 (18.7) n = 73 70.70 (19.5) ns
Subscales:
 LES (n = 75)   33.72 (9.9)   34.31 (9.6) ns
 INTR (n = 70)   15.77 (6.1)   15.77 (5.7)  
 IRR (n = 69)   11.55 (4.3)   11.88 (3.9)  
 C (n = 73)   8.88 v (3.3)   8.78 (3.0)  
DAI 10 mean score (1 positive, − 1 negative) n = 59 1.46 (2.70) n = 59 1.63 (2.56) ns
Caregivers
  T0 T1
LEE Total n = 45 70.85 (11.8) n = 45 67.59 (12.4) T = 2.31; p = 0.03 
Subscales:
 LES (n = 50)   32.66 (8.0)   31.64 (7.8)  
 INTR (n = 50)   15.32 (4.9)   14.32 (4.3)  
 IRR (n = 48)   11.98 (3.4)   10.90 (3.4) ns
 C (n = 51)   9.16 (2.4)   8.63 (2.2)  
  1. QIDS- SR, self-rated Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology; ASRM, Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale; PAM-13, short form of the Patient Activation Measure; DAI 10, Drug Attitude Inventory; LEE, Level of Expressed Emotion (LES, lack of emotional support; INTR, intrusiveness; IRR, irritability; C, criticism)