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Table 1 Characteristics of mothers and infants in the BD and the non-clinical sample

From: Bipolar offspring and mothers: interactional challenges at infant age 3 and 12 months—a developmental pathway to enhanced risk?

Variable BD sample
N = 26
Non-clinical sample
N = 28
p value
*significant
Maternal age at inclusion, in years, mean ± SD; range 30.5 ± 4.7; 22–37 33.5 ± 5.1; 27–44 0.03*
  n % n %  
Parity 0.43
 Primiparous 13 50 17 61
 Multiparous 13 50 11 39
Completed education < 0.001*
 Primary school 8 31 1 4  
 Secondary school 5 19 4 14  
 Bachelor’s degree 11 42 7 25  
 Master’s degree 2 8 16 57  
Employment status when not pregnant    0.003*
 Working full-time 12 46 21 75  
 Working part-time ± receiving benefits 4 15 2 7  
 Receiving benefits only 8 31 0   
 Unemployed 1 4 1 4  
 School 1 4 4 14  
Infant gender 0.95
 Girl 10 38 11 39
 Boy 16 62 17 61
Infant birth weight, in g, mean ± SD; range 3632 ± 507; 2905-5085 3692 ± 424; 2911–4715 0.64
Infant gestational age, in months, mean ± SD; range 39.5 ± 1.2; 37.2-41.6 40 ± 1.2; 37–42 0.17
Clinical characteristics of BD sample
 Primary diagnosis  
  BD I 7 27 Not applicable
  BD II 19 73
 Symptom loada at 3 months   
  Euthymia 8 31 Not applicable
  Mild depressive 6 23
  Moderate depressive 5 19
  Severe depressive 4 15
  Hypomania 2 8
  Mixed stateb (mild) 1 4
 Symptom loada at 12 months  
  Euthymia 8 31 Not applicable
  Mild depressive 4 15
  Moderate depressive 6 23
  Severe depressive 6 23
  Maniac 1 4
  Mixed stated (severe) 1 4
  1. a Euthymia = IDS score 0–13 + YMRS score 0–7; Mild depressive = IDS score 14–21; Moderate depressive = IDS score 22–30; Severe depressive = IDS score 31–38. Hypomania = YMRS score 8–20
  2. b Actual score: IDS = 14, YMRS = 11.5
  3. c One mother in recovery from a manic episode with hospitalisation. Not assessed with IDS or YMRS
  4. d Actual score: IDS = 34, YMRS = 16