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Table 2 Interaction score comparisons (mean) between the BD and the non-clinical sample on PCERA subscales at 12 months

From: Bipolar offspring and mothers: interactional challenges at infant age 3 and 12 months—a developmental pathway to enhanced risk?

Subscale BD sample n = 26 Non-clinical sample n = 28 Mean difference Significance level Cohen’s d
Mean (sd)
95% CI
Mean (sd)
95% CI
95% CI
S1
 Maternal positive affective involvement and verbalisationa 3.4 (0.57)
3.1–3.6
4.1 (0.51)
3.9–4.3
− 0.74 (− 1.03 to − 0.44) < 0.001* 1.36
S2
 Maternal negative affect and behavioura 4.4 (0.54)
4.2–4.6
4.9 (0.22)
4.8–5.0
− 0.49 (− 0.71 to − 0.27) < 0.001* 1.19
S3
 Maternal intrusiveness, insensitivity and inconsistencya 3.8 (0.49)
3.6–4.0
4.5 (0.37)
4.4–4.6
− 0.68 (− 0.92 to − 0.45) < 0.001* 1.57
S4
 Infant positive affect, communicative and social skillsa 3.3 (0.68)
3.0–3.6
3.9 (0.61)
3.7–4.2
− 0.63 (− 0.98 to − 0.28) 0.001* 0.97
S5
 Infant quality of play, interest and attentional skillsa 4.0 (0.40)
3.8–4.1
4.4 (0.37)
4.3–4.6
− 0.43 (− 0.64 to − 0.22) < 0.001* 1.12
S6
 Infant dysregulation and irritabilityb 4.7 (4.5, 4.8)
4.6–4.8
4.9 (4.7, 5.0)
4.6–4.9
* 0.04* 0.28c
S7
 Dyadic mutuality and reciprocitya 2.7 (0.74)
2.4–3.0
3.7 (0.76)
3.4–4.0
− 1.03 (− 1.44 to − 0.63) < 0.001* 1.38
S8
 Dyadic disorganisation and tensiona 3.6 (0.57)
3.4–3.9
4.5 (0.41)
4.4–4.7
− 0.88 (− 1.14 to − 0.61) < 0.001* 1.78
  1. aIndependent samples t-test
  2. bNon-parametric test, Mann–Whitney U test, because of non-normal distribution of data. The results are presented as median values with interquartile range and range
  3. cThe effect size for Mann–Whitney U test: \(r = \frac{Z}{\sqrt N }\)* Statistically significant results