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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), unaffected first-degree relatives (UR) and healthy control individuals (HC) at baseline

From: Smartphone-based activity measurements in patients with newly diagnosed bipolar disorder, unaffected relatives and control individuals

  BD UR HC BD vs HC (p) BD vs UR (p) UR vs HC (p)
Participants, n 203 54 109    
Age, years 28 [24–35] 26 [22–31] 26 [24–36] 0.39 0.028 0.014
Female sex, % (n) 69.0 (140) 56.6 (30) 63.3 (69) 0.31 0.064 0.34
Education, years 15 [13–17] 15 [13–17] 16 [15–17] <0.001 0.27 0.09
Full time employment, % (n) 32.0 (64) 48.1 (25) 50.0 (52) 0.002 0.03 0.82
Student, % (n) 40.5 (81) 46.2 (24) 38.5 (40) 0.73 0.46 0.36
HAMD-17 9 [5–15] 2 [0–3] 0 [0–2] <0.001 <0.001 0.60
YMRS 2 [0–7] 0 [0–2] 0 [0–1] <0.001 <0.001 0.60
FAST, total score 22 [13–30] 1 [0–3] 0 [0–2] <0.001 <0.001 0.20
Bipolar disorder type II, % (n) 66.5 (135)
Age of onset, years 17 [14–21]
Illness duration, yearsa 10 [5–14]
Untreated BD, yearsb 4 [1–10]
No. prior depressive episodes 5 [3–13]
No. prior hypomanic episodes 5 [2–15]
No. prior manic episodes 1 [1–2]
No. prior mixed episodes 1 [1–2]
No. prior total episodes 12 [6–27]      
Episode at baselinef
 Full or partiel remisison, % (n) 60.6 (123)      
 Hypomania/mania, % (n) 5.9 (12)      
 Depression, % (n) 33.0 (67)      
 Mixed, % (n) 0.5 (1)      
  1. Continuous variables are presented as median [interquartile range] and p-values are calculated based on differences in mean between the tree groups using mixed models. Categorical data are presented as % (n) and p-values are calculated by using the chi-square test.
  2. HAMD-17 Hamilton Depression Rating Scale with 17 items version, YMRS Young Mania Rating Scale, FAST Functional Assessment Short Test.
  3. aIllness duration was defined as the time from the first episode to the time of inclusion.
  4. bUntreated BD was defined as time from the first mania, hypomania, or mixed episode to time of diagnosis. Episode at baseline according to HAMD-17 and YMRS, full or partial remission was defined as HAMD-17 and YMRS < 14, scores on HAMD-17 or YMRS ≥ 14 were defined as depression or hypomania/mania and as mixed if both HAMD-17 and YMRS ≥ 14;
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