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Table 4 Estimated differences in activity in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), unaffected first-degree relatives (UR) and healthy control individuals (HC)

From: Smartphone-based activity measurements in patients with newly diagnosed bipolar disorder, unaffected relatives and control individuals

  Model 1 Model 2
BD UR HC BD/HC BD/UR UR/HC BD UR HC BD/HC BD/UR UR/HC
Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI p p p Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI Mean 95% CI p p p
Smartphone-based self-reported activity
 Self-reported activity 0.06 −0.02;0.14 0.54 0.39;0.69 0.68 0.57;0.79  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.16 0.05 −0.03;0.14 0.56 0.40;0.72 0.68 0.57;0.79  < 0.001 0.001 0.25
 High activity levela (%) 12.5 10.4;14.7 24.2 20.0;28.4 24.8 21.9;27.8  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.81 12.7 10.4;15.0 24.3 20.1;28.6 24.9 21.9;27.9  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.82
 Low activity levelb (%) 14.0 12.2;15.7 8.0 4.6;11.4 5.1 2.7;7.5  < 0.001 0.002 0.18 14.4 12.6;16.3 7.8 4.4;11.2 5.5 3.1;8.0  < 0.001 0.001 0.29
Automatically generated smartphone-based activity
 Step counts (number/day) 3502 2711;4292 3177 1456;4896 5911 4511;7310 0.004 0.73 0.016 3622 2774;4470 2851 1018;4684 5923 4506;7340 0.006 0.45 0.010
 Screen time (min/day) 205.4 179;232 188.8 130;247 175.1 135;215 0.22 0.61 0.70 197.3 170;224 188.7 130;247 176,4 137;216 0.39 0.79 0.73
 Screen on (number/day) 66.8 56.6;77.1 82.3 59.7;104.9 71.1 55.6;86.6 0.65 0.22 0.42 63.9 53.6;74.1 77.9 55.8;100.1 70.8 55.8;85.8 0.45 0.26 0.60
 Incoming calls (number/day) 1.50 1.30;1.71 1.11 0.68;1.53 1.39 1.08;1.71 0.57 0.09 0.27 1.56 1.35;1.76 1.67 0.73;1.61 1.40 1.09;1.71 0.40 0.10 0.38
 Outgoing calls (number/day) 2.69 2.33;3.05 2.28 1.50;3.06 2.37 1.83;2.91 0.33 0.35 0.86 2.74 2.38;3.10 2.47 1.70;3.23 2.39 1.87;2.91 0.28 0.53 0.87
 Missed calls (number/day) 1.00 0.89;1.12 0.77 0.56;0.98 0.75 0.56;0.93 0.023 0.042 0.86 0.99 0.87;1.10 0.82 0.64;1.00 0.76 0.57;0.94 0.036 0.045 0.62
 Call duration (min/day) 17.8 15.0;20.7 9.93 3.70;16.2 10.45 6.17;14.73 0.005 0.024 0.89 17.8 14.9;20.6 11.15 4.93;17.4 10.7 6.45;14.9 0.007 0.058 0.90
 SMS incoming (number/day) 6.56 5.50;7.63 6.27 3.92;8.62 5.22 3.61;6.84 0.17 0.82 0.47 6.63 5.53;7.73 6.49 4.11;8.88 5.25 3.63;6.87 0.17 0.92 0.39
 SMS outgoing (number/day) 5.25 4.19;6.31 5.45 3.12;7.79 4.25 2.64;5.86 0.30 0.88 0.40 5.26 4.17;6.35 5.76 3.40;8.12 4.30 2.69;5.90 0.33 0.70 0.31
Physical activity (IPAQ)
 IPAQ total score 2748 2414;3080 3049 2421;3676 3374 2953;3795 0.022 0.41 0.40 2752 2410;3095 3045 2412;3679 3303 2877;3729 0.045 0.42 0.51
Observer-based rating scales
 HAMD subitem 8 0.40 0.34;0.46 0.10 −0.02;0.21 0.01 −0.02;0.21  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.20 0.39 0.33;0.45 0.08 −0.04;0.19 −0.003 −0.10;0.08  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.30
 HAMD subitem 9 0.34 0.28;0.40 0.12 0.01;0.23 0.01 −0.07;0.09  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.11 0.36 0.30:0.41 0.08 −0.02:0.19 0.02 −0.05:0.10  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.40
 YMRS subitem 2 0.41 0.33;0.49 0.24 0.09;0.39 0.14 0.04;0.25  < 0.001 0.04 0.30 0.42 0.34;0.50 0.24 0.09;0.39 0.16 0.06;0.27  < 0.001 0.033 0.42
 YMRS subitem 6 0.62 0.52;0.73 0.08 −0.12;0.28 0.05 −0.09;0.19  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.81 0.64 0.53;0.74 0.07 −0.14;0.27 0.07 −0.08;0.21  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.96
 FAST 20.8 19.5;22.0 3.25 0.76;5.6 1.38 −0.33;3.09  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.22 20.4 19.1;21.7 2.70 0.21;5.19 1.15 −0.59;2.89  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.32
  1. Significant p values are given in italic
  2. Model 1 unadjusted, Model 2 adjusted for age and sex, Physical activity (IPAQ) The Physical Activity Questionnaire short form. A measure of physical activity 7 days prior to assessment calculated as MET minutes per week, HAMD-17 The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-item. Subitem 8 and 9 addressing psychomotor retardation and agitation, respectively, YMRS total The Young Mania Rating Scale. Subitem 2 and 6 assessing motor activity and speech, respectively, FAST The Functional Assessment Short Test (FAST), a measure of global functioning 14 days prior to assessment at baseline.
  3. aHigh activity level: Calculated as proportion of days with activity level >  = 2 on a scale from −3 to + 3/number of days with activity ratings.
  4. bLow activity level: Calculated as proportion of days with activity level <  = −2 on a scale from −3 to + 3/number of days with activity ratings.
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