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Table 1 Characteristics at baseline and during follow-up for patients with bipolar disorder with different medication status in Sweden 2005–2013

From: Respiratory infections during lithium and valproate medication: a within-individual prospective study of 50,000 patients with bipolar disorder

  Lithiuma Valproatea Never treated with lithium/valproate Total Eligible for within-individual analysisc
Number of individuals (%) 21,126 (41.0) 8410 (15.9) 25,758 (49.7) 51,509 3285 (6.4)
Sex (% male) 8469 (40.1) 3609 (42.9) 9001 (34.9) 19,475 (37.8) 1307 (39.8)
Characteristics at baseline
 Age distribution (N of individuals, %)b
  15–51 11,355 (53.7) 5115 (60.8) 16,263 (63.1) 30,808 (59.8) 864 (26.3)
  51–64 5513 (26.1) 1998 (23.8) 4986 (19.4) 11,494 (22.3) 899 (27.4)
  64–75 2652 (12.6) 887 (10.5) 2498 (9.7) 5496 (10.7) 798 (24.3)
  75–100 1606 (7.6) 410 (4.9) 2011 (7.8) 3711 (7.2) 724 (22.0)
 Respiratory infection (N of individuals, %)
  At least one respiratory infection event during follow-up 1532 (7.3) 722 (8.6) 1463 (5.7) 3389 (6.6) 3285 (100)
  Proportion of time exposed to lithium or valproate medications 41.3 42.3 22.4 28.6
  1. a3785 individuals were ever treated with both lithium and valproate (defined as at least 3 months treatment)
  2. bAge band was categorized according to the quartiles of age distribution of individuals who ever have any respiratory infection at any time during follow-up
  3. cIncludes individuals who ever had a respiratory infection during the follow-up; individuals without any of the outcome diagnoses during follow-up do not provide information