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Table 1 Evaluation of putative endophenotypes for bipolar disorder

From: Evaluating endophenotypes for bipolar disorder

Endophenotype Associated with BD Heritability State-independence Co-segregation Familial association Total
Imaging endophenotypes
 White matters abnormalities +++ +++ + + +++ 11
 Acc cortical thickness +++ + + + + 7
Cognitive, emotional and reward processing endophenotypes
 Attention and executive dysfunctions +++ +++ + ++ + 10
 Dysregulation of emotion and reward +++ + ++ + + 8
 Learning and memory +++ + + ± + 6.5
 Impaired facial expression recognition + + + + + 5
Molecular endophenotypes
 CCL11 + + ± + + 4.5
 sTNFR1 + +++ 0 0 4
 CCL24 ++ 0 ++ 4
 CXCL10 ++ ++ 0 0 4
 BDNF + + ± ± 3
 CRP +  +  ± ± 3
 TWEAK ++ 0 + 0 0 3
 IL-10 ± + ± 2
 OPG + ± 0 0 1.5
  1. − one or more studies did not support this finding (with no positive studies), or the majority of studies do not support this finding; ± equal number of studies support this finding and do not support this finding; + at least one study supports this finding and no studies do not support this finding, or the majority of studies support this finding; ++ two or more studies support this finding, and no studies do not support this finding; +++ three or more studies support this finding, and no studies do not support this finding; 0, data not available
  2. Scores: − 0; ± 0.5; + 1