Skip to main content

Table 3 Studies that investigated distraction in euthymic BD patients

From: Deficits in explicit emotion regulation in bipolar disorder: a systematic review

Study Age Medication Paradigm Dependent variables Results behavioral Results neural
Caseras et al. (2015) Adults Yes Task:
N-back task
with emotional distractors
Valence:
Negative, positive
Participants:
BD-I, euthymic (n = 16)
BD-II, euthymic (n = 19)
HC (n = 20)
Behavioral:
Performance in n-back task
Neural:
fMRI, PPI, DTI
Regions of interest:
DLPFC, amygdala, and accumbens
PPI seed:
DLPFC
PPI targets:
Amygdala, accumbens
RT (2-back vs. 0-back):
BD-I > BD-II and HC
Slowing due to distractors in 2-back task:
BD-I > BD-II and HC
RT in 2-back without distractors:
BD-I > HC
BD-II vs. HC: NS
RT in the 2-back task (no distractor vs. emotional distractor):
BD-I:
Fear > no distractor
Happy > no distractor
BD-II:
NS
HC:
Fear > no distractor
Neutral > no distractor
2-back (no distractor) vs. 0-back (no distractor):
Working memory network: BD-I > BD-II and HC
2-back task (distractor vs. no distractor):
DLPFC:
Fear: BD-II > BD-I > HC
Happy: BD-I > BD-II and HC
Neutral: HC > BD-I
Amygdala:
Fear: BD-II > BD-I > HC
Happy: BD-I > BD-II > HC
Neutral: BD-I > HC
Accumbens:
Fear: BD-I and BD-II > HC
Happy: BD-I > BD-II and HC
Neutral: BD-I > HC
Functional connectivity:
DLPFC-Amygdala
Fear: BD-II > BD-I and HC
DLPFC-Accumbens
NS
Structural integrity:
Left uncinate fasciculus: NS
Right uncinate fasciculus: BD-I < BD-II and HC
Kanske et al. (2013) Adults Yes Task:
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative, positive
Participants:
BD-I, euthymic (n = 22)
HC (n = 22)
Behavioral:
Performance in the distraction task
Neural:
fMRI
RT in the mental arithmetic task:
BD-I > HC
During distraction:
Right parietal cortex: BD-I > HC
Kanske et al. (2015) Adults Yes Task:
Picture viewing task
Valence:
Negative, positive
Participants:
BD-I, euthymic (n = 22)
HC (n = 22)
Behavioral:
Self-report during and after the task
Neural:
fMRI
Regions of interest:
Bilateral OFC, dorsolateral (DLPFC, middle frontal) and dorsomedial prefrontal (DMPFC, superior medial), anterior cingulate (ACC), and parietal cortex (inferior, superior)
Self-report:
Rating after the experiment:
NS
Viewing:
Positive: NS
Negative: NS
Distraction:
NS
Viewing:
NS
Distraction vs. viewing:
NS
  1. ACC anterior cingulate cortex, BD bipolar disorder, DLPFC dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DMPFC dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, DTI diffusion tensor imaging; fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging, HC healthy controls, NS not significant, OFC orbitofrontal cortex, PFC prefrontal cortex, PPI psychophysiological interaction, VLPFC ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, VMPFC ventromedial prefrontal cortex