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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Patients’ adherence to smartphone apps in the management of bipolar disorder: a systematic review

Author, year, location Study design Primary outcome Study length (Weeks) Main findings Additional intervention
Van Til et al.; 2020, US (Til et al. 2020) Randomised Control Trial To identify how to best engage individuals with BD in monitoring their symptoms using mobile and wearable technology 6 No statistical difference in adherence between the two groups (passive and active monitoring)  
Faurholt-Jepsen et al.; 2020, Denmark (Faurholt-Jepsen et al. 2020) Randomised Control Trial To assess the effect of smartphone-based monitoring and mood prediction on depressive and manic symptoms in patients with BD 36 No differences between the intervention group and the control group in levels of depressive and manic symptoms  
Depp et al.; 2015; US (Depp et al. 2015) Randomised Control Trial To assess the effect of the PRISM programme on depressive symptoms using an app or paper and pencil in patients with BD 24 Significant effect on depressive symptoms, greater in the app group compared to the paper and pencil group In-person psycho-educational programme associated with the use of the app
Stanislaus et al.; 2020, Denmark (Stanislaus et al. 2020) Observational To compare frequency of mood instability between BD patients and healthy control using a smartphone app Up to 800 days Mood instability score was statistically significantly higher for patients with BD compared with HC  
Hidalgo-Mazzei et al.; 2018, Spanish language countries (Hidalgo-Mazzei et al. 2018) Observational, Feasibility study To evaluate the long-term retention, usability, perceived helpfulness, and satisfaction among the first 201 users of the SIMPLE programme 24 More than 30% of the participants continued to use the programme after 6 months. Positive outcomes regarding satisfaction, usability, and perceived helpfulness  
Tsanas et al.; 2016, UK (Tsanas et al. 2016) Observational To introduce and validate a novel clinical questionnaire used for daily mood monitoring of BD and borderline personality disorder patients as part of a smartphone application 12 to 48 Daily MZ items of negative mood correlated highly with the clinical scores. Correlations were weaker between the daily ratings of positive mood clinical scores  
Schwartz et al., 2016, US (Schwartz et al. 2016) Observational To measure completion rates of surveys of mood symptoms on smartphone in BD and healthy control participants 2 Median completion rates did not differ between groups  
Wenze et al.; 2016; US (Wenze et al. 2016) Observational, Feasibility study To assess feasibility and acceptability of a 12-week adjunctive, smartphone assisted intervention to improve treatment adherence in bipolar disorder 12 Average Credibility and Expectancy Scale total score was 42.13 (SD = 9.64) out of a possible total of 54. Good adherence to the intervention overall. High satisfaction in qualitative feedbacks In-person psycho-educational programme associated with the use of the app
Hidalgo-Mazzei et al.; 2016; Spain (Hidalgo-Mazzei et al. 2016) Observational, Feasibility study To evaluate acceptability, safety, and satisfaction of the simple app 12 The SIMPLe app represents a satisfactory and acceptable instrument as an add-on to the usual treatment  
Beiwinkel et al.; 2016; Germany (Beiwinkel et al. 2016) Observational, Pilot study To investigate whether smartphone data predict impending clinical symptoms in bipolar disorder 48 Self-reported mood was found to predict depressive symptom levels above the clinical threshold but not manic symptoms  
Faurholt-Jepsen et al.; 2015; Denmark (Faurholt-Jepsen et al. 2015) Observational To determine indicator of illness activity to investigate differences between Bipolar 1 and Bipolar II patients using smartphone self-monitoring 24 or more, Patients with Bipolar II experienced more severe depressive symptoms and spent almost half of their time with depressive symptoms whereas patients with Bipolar I were euthymic during 75% of their time  
Wenze et al. 2014, US (Wenze et al. 2014) Observational, Feasibility study To establish the feasibility and acceptability of using mobile technology to target adherence in BD 2 Participants voiced satisfaction with study procedures. Adherence with EMI sessions was high  
Faurholt -Jepsen et al.; 2014, Denmark (Faurholt-Jepsen et al. 2014) Observational, Pilot study To investigate possible correlations between clinically rated depressive and manic symptoms of bipolar disorder and subjective and objective smartphone data 12 Increasing depressive symptoms correlated with decreasing amounts of movement per day. No correlation between smartphone measures and manic symptoms identified  
  1. BD Bipolar disorder, HC Healthy control, SD Standard deviation, EMI Ecological momentary intervention