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Table 2 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics for subjects in the four pre-defined groups (three BD at-risk and one manifest mania/BD) (N = 149)

From: Early detection of bipolar disorders and treatment recommendations for help-seeking adolescents and young adults: Findings of the Early Detection and Intervention Center Dresden

  Group 1
AR
(N = 21)
Group 2
AR + LD
(N = 49)
Group 3
AR + (H)MR
(N = 55)
Group 4
M/BD
(N = 24)
Group differences with Bonferroni correction (significant results, only)d p-value Group differences for planned contrasts representing increasing risk for BD (significant results, only)d p-value
  M SD M SD M SD M SD     
Age 23.7 4.8 24.5 5.1 23.4 4.0 25.6 4.5     
  N % N % N % N %     
Sex
 Female 12 57.1 33 67.3 32 58.2 8 33.3 G2 vs G4: Chi2 = 7.570 0.036 G1 + G2 + G3 vs G4: Chi2 = 6.565 0.039
Substance use   
 Nicotine usea 9 42.9 21 44.7 22 41.5 12 60.0     
 Alcohola 4 19.0 16 34.0 21 39.6 8 40.0     
 Cannabis usea 11 52.4 22 46.8 30 56.6 15 75.0    G1 + G2 + G3 vs G4: Chi2 = 3.652 0.056
 Amphetamine useb 4 19.0 5 10.6 9 17.0 5 25.0     
 Hallucinogen useb 3 14.3 6 12.8 6 11.3 3 15.0     
 Cocaine useb 1 4.8 2 4.3 5 9.4 4 20.0    G1 + G2 + G3 vs G4: Chi2 = 3.951 0.041
Diagnoses according to DSM-IV (current or lifetime)#   
 Mental/behavioral dis. due to psychoactive substance use (F1x.x) 2 9.5 11 22.4 9 16.4 4 16.7     
  Mental/behavioral dis. due to use of alcohol (F10.x) 1 4.8 9 18.4 7 12.7 3 12.5     
 Mental/behavioral dis. due to use of cannabis (F12.x) 2 9.5 4 8.2 3 5.5 3 12.5     
 Mood (Affective) Disorders (3x.x) 0 0.0 49 100.0 35 63.6 24 100.0 n.a   n.a  
  Manic episode/Bipolar affective disorder (wo Hypomania) (F30.x-F31.x) 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 24 100.0 n.a   n.a  
  Depressive Episode (F32.x) 0 0.0 20 40.8 7 12.7 0 0.0 n.a   n.a  
  Recurrent depressive disorder (F33.x) 0 0.0 24 49.0 27 49.1 0 0.0 n.a   n.a  
  Persistent mood (affective) disorders (F34.x) 0 0.0 5 10.2 1 1.8 0 0.0 n.a   n.a  
 Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (F4x.x) 7 33.3 10 20.4 17 30.9 8 33.3     
  Phobic anxiety disorders and other anxiety disorders (F40.x-F41.x) 4 19.0 6 12.2 15 27.3 6 25.0    G1 + G2vsG3 + G4: Chi2 = 3.406 0.065
 Eating disorders (F50x) 1 4.8 3 6.1 5 9.1 1 4.2     
 Specific, mixed and other personality disorders (F60.x-F61.x) 3 14.3 3 6.1 3 5.5 0 0.0    G1vsG2 + G3 + G4: Chi2 = 2.928 0.087
 ADHD/ hyperkinetic disorder (F90.x)c 1 4.8 4 8.2 7 12.7 3 12.5     
 Comorbidity of above mentioned diagnoses 0 11 52.4 0 0.0 11 20.0 0 0.0 G1 vs G2: Chi2 = 30.632
G1 vs G3: Chi2 = 8.655
G1 vs G4: Chi2 = 16.720
G2 vs G3: Chi2 = 11.913
p < 0.001
p = 0.078
p < 0.001
p = 0.018
G1vsG2 + G3 + G4: Chi2 = 27.810
G1 + G2 + G3vsG4: Chi2 = 5.340
p < 0.001
p = 0.069
  1 6 28.6 25 51.0 18 32.7 13 54.2
  2 +  4 19.0 24 49.0 26 47.3 11 45.8   
  1. N number, % percentage, M mean, SD: standard deviation, Chi2: Chi-square, p: p-value, n.a. not applicable, AR at-risk for bipolar disorder, LD: lifetime depression, (h)MR (Hypo-)Mania Risk State, M/BD Manifest Mania/ Bipolar Disorder, G1 group 1, G2 group 2, G3 group 3, G4 group 4.
  2. anever, once, sporadically vs. frequently; bnever, once vs. sporadically; c including anamnestic information; dFor reason of clarity we decided to present significant results only.
  3. Statistics for non-significant results are available on request to inform future meta-analyses,