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Table 2 Lifetime clinical characteristics of non-pregnant and pregnant women with BD recruited from two study cohorts from The Netherlands

From: The course of bipolar disorder in pregnant versus non-pregnant women

Clinical characteristics Non-pregnant (n-52) Pregnant (n = 34) Test statistic
Diagnosis, n (%)    
 Bipolar I 38 (76.0) 19 (59.4)  
 Bipolar II 12 (24.0) 13 (40.6) χ2 = 2.541 p = 0.11
Illness durationa    
 Mean duration in years (SD) 15.4 (7.29) 14.6 (6.18) T = -5.02 p = 0.62
 Less than 5 years 3 (5.8) 3 (9.1)  
 5–9 years 9(17.3) 3 (9.1)  
 10–19 years 21 (40.4) 17 (51.5)  
 20–29 years 19 (36.5) 10 (30.3) χ2 = 2.071 p = 0.56
 Age of onseta (mean, SD) 19.9 (5.93) 19.5 (5.23) U = 828.5 p = 0.790
No. of depressive episodes, n (%)    
 0 episodes 0 (0) 3 (9.1)  
 1 episode 6 (11.5) 1 (3.0)  
 2–4 episodes 16 (30.8) 16 (48.5)  
 5–10 episodes 13 (25.0) 7 (21.2)  
 11–20 episodes 5 (9.6) 4 (12.1)  
 > 20 episodes 12 (23.1) 2 (6.1) χ2 = 11.977 p = 0.04
No. of manic episodes, n (%)    
 0 0 1 (3.0)  
 1 episode 4 (7.7) 6 (18.2)  
 2–4 episodes 20 (38.5) 19 (57.6)  
 5–10 episodes 16 (30.8) 4 (12.1)  
 11–20 episodes 7 (13.5) 1 (3.0)  
 > 20 episodes 5 (9.6) 2 (6.1) χ2 = 10.699 p = 0.06
 Hospitalizationsa, mean (SD) 4.1 (5.8) 1.4 (1.7)  
Medication, n (%)    
 Without medication 0 (0.0) 8(23.5)  
 1 Mood stabilizer 23 (44.2) 8 (23.5)  
 > 1 Mood stablizers 20 (38.5) 0 (0.0)  
 Moodstabilizer and other medication 9 (17.3) 8 (23.5)  
 Other medication only 0 (0.0) 10 (29.4) χ2 = 43.453 p < 0.01
Substance abuse/dependence, n (%)    
 Alcohol 9 (17.3) 3 (9.1) χ2 = 1.124 p = 0.29
 Drugs 7 (13.5) 7 (21.5) χ2 = 0.881 p = 0.35
Serious suicide attempts    
 None 36 (69.2) 28 (84.8)  
 One or more 16(30.8) 5 (15.2) χ2 = 2.547 p = 0.10
  1. a Mean illness duration was normally distributed (Kolmogorov_Smirnov > 0.05, Shapiro–Wilk > 0.05), age of onset and number of hospitalizations were not (Kolmogorov_Smirnov < 0.05, Shapiro–Wilk < 0.05)