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Table 3 Classification within patients with bipolar disorder (n  = 100) according to patient-reported smartphone-based data on mood, activity and sleepa

From: Voice analyses using smartphone-based data in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected relatives and healthy control individuals, and during different affective states

Binary classifier
n  =  number of observations
Model type Accuracy (SD) F1 score (SD) Sensitivty (SD) Specificity (SD) AUC (SD) B10 (SD)b
Mood  
 Mania (n  = 1205) versus euthymia (n  = 38,329) Random Forest model-user independent 0.72 (0.18) 0.05 (0.03) 0.23 (0.12) 0.73 (0.19) 0.51 (0.07) − 2.65 (0.34)
Random Forest model-user dependent 0.74 (0.16) 0.25 (0.22) 0.42 (0.22) 0.75 (0.16) 0.66 (0.11) 0.53 (3.69)
Majority vote-user independent 0.94 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 0.50 (0.00) − 3.18 (1.61)
Majority vote-user dependent 0.97 (0.00) 0.08 (0.25) 0.11 (0.31) 0.89 (0.31) 0.48 (0.02) − 3.23 (1.35)
Random model-user independent 0.49 (0.00) 0.06 (0.03) 0.49 (0.05) 0.50 (0.01) 0.50 (0.00) − 2.82 (0.27)
Random model-user dependent 0.49 (0.00) 0.15 (0.09) 0.52 (0.03) 0.48 (0.03) 0.50 (0.00) − 2.21 (0.59)
 Depression (n  = 5329) versus euthymia (n  = 38,329) Random Forest model-user independent 0.63 (0.06) 0.21 (0.07) 0.40 (0.07) 0.66 (0.05) 0.55 (0.05) − 1.82 (0.22)
Random Forest model-user dependent 0.70 (0.13) 0.40 (0.21) 0.53 (0.22) 0.70 (0.16) 0.66 (0.12) 2.78 (5.49)
Majority vote-user independent 0.89 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 0.50 (0.00) − 3.78 (1.31)
Majority vote-user dependent 0.71 (0.00) 0.11 (0.28) 0.13 (0.33) 0.88 (0.33) 0.49 (0.02) − 3.29 (0.00)
Random model-user independent 0.50 (0.00) 0.24 (0.06) 0.51 (0.01) 0.49 (0.00) 0.50 (0.00) − 2.07 (0.16)
Random model-user dependent 0.46 (0.0) 0.31 (0.17) 0.55 (0.07) 0..44 (0.05) 0.50 (0.00) − 1.80 (0.46)
Activity
 Increased (n  = 12,890) versus neutral (n  = 21,661) Random Forest model-user independent 0.46 (0.08) 0.43 (0.10) 0.55 (0.07) 0.41 (0.09) 0.48 (0.07) − 1.38 (0.20)
Random Forest model-user dependent 0.67 (0.13) 0.55 (0.25) 0.55 (0.26) 0.58 (0.24) 0.61 (0.10) 1.85 (5.92)
Majority vote-user independent 0.48 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 0.50 (0.00) − 3.52 (0.00)
Majority vote-user dependent 0.57 (0.00) 0.45 (0.40) 0.56 (0.49) 0.44 (0.49) 0.49 (0.01) − 0.02 (0.15)
Random model-user independent 0.50 (0.00) 0.45 (0.07) 0.50 (0.01) 0.49 (0.01) 0.50 (0.00) − 1.76 (0.07)
Random model-user dependent 0.53 (0.00) 0.50 (0.13) 0.56 (0.05) 0.45 (0.05) 0.50 (0.00) − 1.44 (0.63)
 Decreased (n  = 10,288) versus neutral (n  = 21,661) Random Forest model-user independent 0.50 (0.03) 0.42 (0.06) 0.58 (0.04) 0.47 (0.05) 0.54 (0.02) − 1.43 (0.42)
Random Forest model-user dependent 0.66 (0.11) 0.53 (0.18) 0.53 (0.20) 0.65 (0.21) 0.62 (0.10) 3.13 (6.40)
Majority vote-user independent 0.69 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 0.50 (0.00) − 3.04 (0.00)
Majority vote-user dependent 0.71 (0.00) 0.27 (0.37) 0.35 (0.47) 0.65 (0.47) 0.49 (0.02) − 0.02 (0.15)
Random model-user independent 0.50 (0.00) 0.41 (0.07) 0.51 (0.01) 0.49 (0.01) 0.50 (0.00) − 1.77 (0.10)
Random modeluser dependent 0.55 (0.00) 0.45 (0.12) 0.55 (0.05) 0.44 (0.05) 0.50 (0.00) − 1.39 (0.66)
Sleep
 Insomnia (n  = 8474) versus normal sleep (n  = 36,140) Random Forest model-user independent 0.70 (0.05) 0.13 (0.03) 0.16 (0.10) 0.82 (0.09) 0.48 (0.04) − 1.49 (0.43)
Random Forest model-user dependent 0.70 (0.16) 0.33 (0.18) 0.39 (0.22) 0.73 (0.17) 0.59 (0.08) 0.28 (2.66)
Majority vote-user independent 0.85 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 0.50 (0.00) − 3.13 (1.17)
Majority vote-user dependent 0.90 (0.00) 0.05 (0.17) 0.06 (0.24) 0.93 (0.24) 0.49 (0.01) − 3.36 (1.19)
Random model-user independent 0.50 (0.00) 0.25 (0.07) 0.50 (0.01) 0.49 (0.00) 0.50 (0.00) − 2.03 (0.13)
Random model-user dependent 0.48 (0.00) 0.32 (0.13) 0.55 (0.05) 0.44 (0.04) 0.50 (0.00) − 1.77 (0.48)
A broader definition of mania
 Combined increased mood, activity and decreased sleep
  Combined increased mood, activity and decreased sleep (n  = 471) versus rest (n  = 43,243) Random Forest model-user independent 0.77 (0.10) 0.03 (0.02) 0.29 (0.17) 0.77 (0.11) 0.58 (0.06) − 1.68 (0.28)
Random Forest model-user dependent 0.77 (0.15) 0.17 (0.16) 0.41 (0.21) 0.78 (0.16) 0.67 (0.11) 2.15 (6.02)
Majority vote-user independent 0.98 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 0.50 (0.00) − 3.44 (0.00)
Majority vote-user dependent 0.99 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 0.48 (0.02) − 3.43 (1.30)
Random model-user independent 0.49 (0.00) 0.13 (0.05) 0.50 (0.00) 0.49 (0.00) 0.50 (0.00) − 2.39 (0.18)
Random model-user dependent 0.46 (0.00) 0.46 (0.18) 0.56 (0.02) 0.44 (0.04) 0.50 (0.00) − 1.78 (0.24)
  1. The number of observations is the recorded samples before any resampling or cross-validation partitioning
  2. aEuthymia was defined as a mood score of − 0.5, 0, 0.5. Depression was defined as a mood score  <  − 0.5, and mania was defined as a mood score  > 0.5. Increased activity was defined as a score  > 0, and decreased activity was defined as a score  < 0. Insomnia was defined as total sleep duration  < 360 min. A broader definition of mania was made by combining increased mood, increased activity and decreased sleep
  3. bBayesian inference framework