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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Anticipating manic and depressive transitions in patients with bipolar disorder using early warning signals

  Full sample
(N = 20)
Patients with transition (N = 11) Patients without transition (N = 9)
Gender (N)
 Male 4 3 1
 Female 16 8 8
Age (N)    
 20–35 years 9 4 5
 36–50 years 8 5 3
 51–65 years 3 2 1
Education level (N)    
 Higher education 9 6 3
 Secondary education 5 2 3
 Secondary vocational education 3 1 2
 Pre-vocational education 3 2 1
Years since bipolar disorder diagnosis (M, SD) 6.4 (6.3) 5.0 (5.8) 8.2 (6.8)
Years in treatment (M, SD) 10.6 (8.8) 10.1 (8.5) 11.27 (9.7)
Bipolar disorder diagnosis (N)
 Bipolar disorder type I 9 6 5
 Bipolar disorder type II 11 5 4
Comorbid diagnoses (N)    
 No comorbid Axis I/II disorder 12 5 7
 Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 1 1 0
 Autism Spectrum Disorder 1 1 0
 Sleep disorder 1 1 0
 Alcohol/drug dependence 1 0 1
 Personality disorder 6 5 1
Medication use at study start (N)
 None 2 1 1
 Amphetamine 1 1 0
 Anti-epileptic 10 8 2
 Atypical antipsychotic 10 5 5
 Benzodiazepine 9 6 3
 Thyreomimetica 2 0 2
 Lithium 5 0 5
 Monoamine oxidase inhibitor 3 3 0
 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor 4 2 2
 Tricyclic antidepressant 1 1 0
Transitions1 (N)    
 To a manic episode   7  
 To a depressive episode   8  
Symptom increase in week of transition (M, SD)
 Transition to a manic episode (ASRM)   6.7 (1.5)  
 Transition to a depressive episode (QIDS-SR)   11.3 (5.8)  
Manic and depressive symptom levels (M, SD)
 During manic periods (ASRM ≥ 6) 9.0 (3.3)   
 During depressed periods (QIDS ≥ 6) 11.5 (4.7)   
 During nonmanic periods (ASRM < 6) 1.3 (1.6)   
 During nondepressive periods (QIDS < 6) 3.3 (1.3)   
Episode duration after transition in weeks (M, SD)
 Manic episode   1.9 (0.9)  
 Depressive episode   2.6 (3.1)  
Compliance to EMA (%) 75.9 74.6 77.6
  1. 1Four patients reported two transitions, the remaining seven patients reported one transition
  2. ASRM  Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale, M mean, N number, QIDS-SR Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report, SD standard deviation