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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and baseline outcome measures and the breathing focus task at baseline

From: The effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on rumination and a task-based measure of intrusive thoughts in patients with bipolar disorder

  Total at baseline
(N = 49)
MBCT + TAU
(N = 15)
TAU (N = 15) MBCT + TAU vs TAU
Test statistic p
Demographic characteristics  
 Age, Med (P25-P75) 48.5 (37.5–54.0)1 52.0 (43.5–54.0) 45.0 (31.0–51.5) U = 81.5,
z =− 1.29
0.20c
 Gender, Female (%) 66.71 60 66.7 χ2(1) = 0.14 1.00a
Education 0.84b
 Low (%) 12.5 6.7 6.7  
 Medium (%) 29.2 26.7 40
 High (%) 58.3 66.7 53.3
 Married/living together (%) 54.21 46.7 73.3 χ2(1) = 2.22 0.14b
 Employed 41.71 53.3 26.7 χ2(1) = 2.22 0.14a
Clinical characteristics
 Bipolar type I (%) 61.2 60 66.7 χ2(1) = 0.14 1.00a
 Age first episode, Med (P25-P75) 20.0 (17.0–23.0) 23.0 (19.5–27.0) 18.0 (17.5–22.0) U = 68.0,
z =− 1.86
0.067c
 Number of episodes, Med (P25-P75) 13.0 (7.0–40.0) 12.0 (6.5–47.50) 10.0 (8.5–18.5) U = 108,
z =− 0.19
0.87c
Outcome measures
 Depressive symptoms
(IDS-C), Med (P25-P75)
12.0 (5.0–24.0) 13.0 (6.5–28.5) 12.0 (5.0–24.0) U = 102,
z =− 0.44
0.68c
 Manic symptoms
(YMRS), Med (P25-P75)
1.0 (0.0 – 3.0) 1.0 (0.0–4.0) 1.0 (0.0–2.0) U = 101,
z =− 0.52
0.62c
 Depressive rumination (RRS_br), Mean (SD) 11.5 (3.5)4 11.8 (3.8)1 11.1 (3.6) t(27) =− 0.52 0.61d
 Emotion-focused positive rumination (RPA_ER),
Mean (SD)
13.1 (2.8)4 14.7 (2.3)1 12.5 (2.3) t(27) =− 2.59 0.015d
 Self-focused positive rumination (RPA_SR),
Mean (SD)
8.8 (2.8)4 10.5 (2.1)1 8.2 (2.5) t(27) =− 2.66 0.013d
 Breathing focus task Med (P25-P75) Med (P25-P75) Med (P25-P75)   
 Total intrusive thoughts 5.0 (3.0–7.0) 3.0 (2.0–7.0) 5.0 (3.0–7.0) U = 104,
z =− 0.38
0.71c
 Negative intrusive thoughts 1.0 (0.0–2.0) 0.0 (0.0–2.5) 1.0 (0.0–1.0) U = 107,
z =− 0.27
0.81c
 Positive intrusive thoughts 1.0 (0.0–2.0) 1.0 (0.0–2.0) 1.0 (0.0–2.0) U = 111,
z =− 0.064
0.97c
 Neutral intrusive thoughts 2.0 (0.0–4.0) 1.0 (0.0 2.5) 2.0 (1.0–4.5) U = 81.5,
z =− 1.32
0.20c
 Percentage of time distracted by ruminating thoughts (VAS) 22.5 (6.0–42.0)2 16.0 (1.0–34.0)2 22.0 (13.5–36.5) U = 79.5,
z =− 0.83
0.41c
 Percentage of time distracted by positive thoughts (VAS) 36.0 (19.0–52.0)2 19.0 (2.0–45.0)2 36.0 (24.0–53.5) U = 56.0,
z =− 1.92
0.058c
  1. IDS-C inventory of depressive symptomatology—clinician administered, YMRS young mania rating scale
  2. RRS_br brooding subscale of ruminative response scale, RPA_ER emotion-focused subscale of the responses to positive affect questionnaire, RPA_SR self-focused subscale of the responses to positive affect questionnaire
  3. VAS visual analogue scale
  4. aχ2 test
  5. bFisher’s Exact test
  6. cMann–Whitney test
  7. dIndependent samples t test
  8. 1,2,3Number of missing values: 11 missing, 22 missing, 33 missing